A leadwood tree is certainly one of the most iconic trees, found in the Kruger National Park - the light grey bark with a “little blocks” appearance stands out from all the other trees. Family: Combretaceae. RSA Tree No. Small, regular, 4-merous, actinomorphic, creamy white Flowers develop in spikes. These slow growing trees mature as magnificent specimens with … If you have any useful information about this plant, please leave a comment. The leadwood can be found in all the bushveld regions and in mixed forest in southern Africa. The twigs and leaves are hairless as the name imberbe suggests. Coates Palgrave, K., Coates Palgrave, P. & Coates Palgrave, M. 1985. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-23) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sitzungsber. RSA Tree No. They are produced from November to March. BioCentre Klein Flottbek, Hamburg, Germany, R. Revermann; Photo Guide to Plants of Southern African plants. Combretum kraussii. Its fine texture produces a gentle abrasive that is very effective in removing any unwanted build-up of plaque. Combretum adenogonium is beniniens pharmacopoeia medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. Combretum imberbe (leadwood, hardekool) has been used for medicinal purpose and several studies have been carried out to investigate the chemical compounds present in the bark of this plant. Common names: leadwood (Eng. 539. The lowest amount of CP recorded in old browse leaves was 6.09% in Maytenus senegalensis and the highest amount was found to be 13.4% in Colophospermum mopane. Ken Fern, Leadwood (Combretum imberbe) The 3,000-year-old tree A leadwood tree is certainly one of the most iconic trees, found in the Kruger National Park - the light grey bark with a “little blocks” appearance stands out from all the other trees. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Average Dried Weight: 76 lbs/ft 3 (1220 kg/m 3) Specific Gravity (Basic, 12% MC):.96, 1.22. Did you know that the ash from the burnt bark of the leadwood (Combretum imberbe) tree has been used for centuries as a toothpaste? This work aims to study the phytochemical and assess some biological activities of C. adenogonium leaves extracts. Plant Description: Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when dead, leadwood presents an imposing display.. Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. ), where the bush is studded with tall leadwoods that live up to their scientific name; combretum imberbe, meaning “hairless climber”. People's plants . Gardening with indigenous trees and shrubs. Combretum imberbe The tallest of all South African bush-willows, the leadwood grows some 20m high. Combretum imberbe: Research and gaps DWAF contact # 2003-089 5 Namibia the Hereros and Ovambos attach special cultural and religious significance to the tree (Carr 1988). A combination of roots and leaves are taken against bilharzia. Leaves are simple, opposite, sometimes is whorls of three on young branches, elliptic to obovate. Last update on 2019-06-13: Now containing 11906 plants. Description. In spring, the tree bears small, lightly scented greenish-yellow flowers. Combretum imberbe – Leadwood – Hardekool. Balkema, Cape Town. It is, in fact, a fairly common sight at Singita’s South African properties (albeit with more blue sky! The leaves darken and become glossy when maturing. The grey-brown trunk is gnarled and crooked, giving the tree a unique and magical charm. 1978. Bark pale to dark grey, deeply fissured lengthwise with irregular horizontal cracks; young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. … They are simple (have a single blade which may have incisions that are not deep enough to divide the leaf into leaflets). comm. Combretum imberbe Wawra Selected images: Click on each image to see a larger version and details of the record View all images ... young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. Acetone extract of leaves of C. nelsonii, C. albopunctactum, C. imberbe and T. sericea possessed remarkable growth inhibitory activities against fungal pathogens. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. [94] were the first to report that a stilbene, 2′,3′,4-trihydroxyl-3,5,4′-trimethoxybibenzyl (combretastatin B5) (76) (Figure 12.14), isolated from a chloroform fraction of South African Combretum woodii leaves, has significant antibacterial effects against S. aureus (MIC: 16 μg/mL) as well as some activity against the gram-negative E. coli and P. aeruginosa (MIC: 125 μg/mL). It has grey-green simple leaves about 6cm long that are arranged alternately along the stems. The author suggested that MAG possesses both centrally- and peripherally-mediated with help from The bole, which is usually crooked, can be up to 100cm in diameter [ 299 Protabase - … It is also found in Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North-West Province, Mozambique, and into tropical Africa. Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when it is dead, leadwood presents an imposing display, with its almost white trunk and gigantic main branches soaring above the surrounding bush. The species name, imberbe, is derived from the Latin name referring to the lack of hairs on the plant. Combretum imberbe. STATUS OF COMBRETUM IMBERBE LEVEL OF PROTECTION Combretum imberbe is currently not a protected tree in South Africa, although it has been proposed for listing on the protected tree list of South Africa (T. Stehle pers. Allergies/Toxicity: Although there are no specific reports on Combretum imberbe, other species in the Combretum genus (particularly C. kraussii) have been reported to cause skin irritation. Combretum molle leaves, have been investigated in mice and rats [81]. Combretum imberbe Wawra QDS maps by: Google Maps Point records by Google Maps All records: View Zimbabwe records only Records of this taxon from all countries are shown in the table below. Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. ex G.Don LC; Combretum mossambicense (Klotzsch) Engl. Under this It has grey-green simple leaves about 6cm long that are arranged alternately along the stems. Combretum imberbe. 1988. New soft, hairy leaves may be whitish or are light green. The wood is extremely hard and heavy and takes a long time to decay, making this The leaves are eaten as green vegetable. & Diels LC Combretum imberbe Wawra; Combretum imberbe Wawra is an accepted name This name is the accepted name of a species in the genus Combretum (family Combretaceae). ); hardekool (Afr. Leadwood refers to the high density of the wood. Leadwood is known for its hard and heavy wood, which is sometimes used for interior decoration purposes. Specimen: K000226544 Family: Combretaceae: Type Status: holotype: Current Name: Combretum imberbe Wawra: Phenology: Collector: Kirk, J. Previous Names: Combretum primigenum. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. If you would like to support this site, please consider, N. Juergens; Photo Guide to Plants of Southern African plants. Leaves Leaves opposite, verticillate or rarely alternate, usually petiolate (rarely subsessile), almost always entire; petiole sometimes persisting (especially in climbers) forming a ± hooked spine. Highveld & Drakensburg. ), which would afford it protection in terms of Section 12 of the National Forests Act, 1998 (Act No. Combretum imberbe has a non-aggressive root system and can be planted in larger gardens. Uses. Hardy, huge, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. A guide to useful plants of southern Africa. The gum that exudes from damaged areas on the stem is edible and forms part of the diet of the Bushmen. It is widespread in Lowveld areas and grows along streams and rivers. The leadwood is a protected tree in South Africa. In the RSA, there are 5 genera and 41 species. Scientific Name: Combretum imberbe. Root bark that is boiled in water is used for tanning leather. Van Wyk, B-E. & Gericke, N. 2000. Tall, upright tree with a rounded crown; bark is pale grey and splits They become slightly darker, glossy, leathery and densely packed with age. Trees of southern Africa . Distribution: From South Africa north to Tanzania. The pale grey bark is cracked into rectangular blocks. In Autumn, they turn red before they get shed in winter. Leadwood ash is used as a toothpaste. Kaiserl. Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. Remarkable trees of southern Africa . Extracts prepared from Combretum erythrophyllum were shown to display significant antiplasmodial activity (IC 50 ranging from 0.70 to 10.68 μg/mL), with the leaves being most active (IC … web interface by The leaves and fruits are used in white magic. Combretum imberbe Wawra Ecology. The Combretum imberbe is a very tall, high-branching, majestic tree that grows very slowly. The older leaves are typically larger, bigger than those of any other species of Combretum; they are approximately about 80 mm long and 40 mm wide. The fruit is 4-winged, yellowish-green and covered wiht silvery scales. Combretum imberbe is the most impressive of our combretums; even when dead, leadwood presents an imposing display. Total images in all categories: 9,961 Total number of hits on all images: 4,658,119 The plant genus Combretum (Combretaceae) is widely distributed and is used by populations of various Southern African countries (Botswana, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe) for medicinal purposes. The leaves are hairless and grey-green. Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. The inconspicuous pale green flowers form spikes, … Venter, F. & Venter, J. It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. The bark is rough and cracks vertically into a netted pattern (reticulate). She showed me how the scales on this tree’s leaves are visible to the naked eye on both sides of the leaf, and not just on the underside, as is the case with other combretums. International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- … Flora Zambesiaca 4. 84 of 1998). Leaves are simple, opposite, sometimes is whorls of three on young branches, elliptic to obovate. Ajna Fern The colour of the trunk is pale grey to white. 8 likes. It is a long-lived tree (up to 1000 years) and even after it dies, the Leadwood stays impressive with its pale trunk and soaring branches. Combretum imberbe. Dead branches and shoots often remain on a matured tree. The phytochemical analysis (qualitative et quantitative) was conducted by standard analytical chemistry method. These plants were selected based on low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging 0.02–2.5mg/mL (Masoko et al., 2005, 2006) and low LC 50 values rang-ing 75.7–168.6 μg/mL (Masoko, 2006). Combretum . The seeds should be pressed down and covered with a thin layer of sand, and should be kept moist, not planted too deep and not given too much water. dielsii Engl., Combretum imberbe Wawra var. The tree has special cultural and religious importance to the Ovambo people of Nambia. Everyone's guide to trees of South Africa . Mar 3, 2017 - Observation - Tree 2 - Southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town . The inconspicuous pale green flowers form spikes, … Richard Morris. The RSA genera with trees include Combretum, Lumnitzera, Pteleopsis and Terminalia. The leathery leaves are arranged opposite each other. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. Seedlings will germinate after two weeks. The Leadwood tree, Combretum Imberbe, is part of the plant family Combretaceae, which has at least 250 species. Margins are entire. Esterhuyse, N. 2001. Combretum imberbe is a hardy, slow growing, bulky, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. A semi-deciduous tree with a sparse, roundish crown. In Latin the word combretum translates as a climbing plant, and imberbe means lack of hair, so the … Combretum imberbe is a hardy, slow growing, bulky, deciduous tree which can grow to tremendous old age. Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1972. Combretum imberbe Wawra LC; Combretum kraussii Hochst. Common names: Hardekool, Elephant Trunk, Tusk Tree, Ivory tree, Ironwood, Bastard Yellow Wood, Leadwood. Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. Africans used this wood to make hoes before metal was discovered. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. The older leaves are typically larger, bigger than those of any other species of Combretum; they are approximately about 80 mm long and 40 mm wide. Margins are entire. Acetone extracts of leaves and isolated compound demonstrated wound healing properties comparable with that of antibiotic powder (amphotericin B). Conservation Press, Johannesburg . The leadwood is fairly drought resistant, but could be damaged by frost.Combretum imberbe will grow in most well-drained gardens and is quick growing from seeds, under favourable conditions. The leadwood produces 4-winged fruit, which are yellowish green and turn pale red when mature from February to June. SOURCE, TYPE AND GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION OF THREATS TO THE SPECIES C. imberbe is favoured for its durable heartwood which is used for a variety of functions, most Combretum imberbe has greyish colored leaves and a neat up-right trunk. This deciduous tree has Leaves that are opposite, alternate or 3-whorled. The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. The flowers are yellowish cream-coloured and have a sweet fragrance. Carr, J.D. Combretum imberbe (Leadwood) Family: Combretaceae. Pentacyclic triterpenoid rhamnosides from Combretum imberbe leaves. The wood is very hard and tough, and burns very slowly with intense heat. Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Leadwood (Combretum imberbe) The 3,000-year-old tree. Combretum. Login to add your Comment The first things to catch Meg’s eye were the silvery leaves of Combretum imberbe. Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. The deciduous simple Leaves are hairless. Combretum bracteosum leaves; Hits: 995 ; Combretum collinum in the Kruger National Park in January; Hits: 2130 ... Combretum imberbe after hard times; Hits: 298 ; Combretum imberbe bark; Hits: 120 ; Combretum imberbe bole and lower parts; Hits: 134 The leadwood is rarely cultivated but it makes a fine shade tree, though it is big for an average garden. Johnson, D. & Johnson, S. 1993. LC; Combretum microphyllum Klotzsch LC; Combretum mkuzense J.D.Carr & Retief NT; Combretum moggii Exell LC; Combretum molle R.Br. When the seedlings reach the second leaf stage, they should be transplanted into nursery bags. ); motswiri (Pedi); ummono (Sotho); mondzo (Tsonga); motswere (Tswana); umbondwe omnyama (Zulu); mohwelere-tshipi (Northern Sotho); muhiri (Venda); omumboromboga (Herero). Southern Books, Cape Town. The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that MAG possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects in the mammalian models used. Look out for rodents because they enjoy the seeds, while livestock pose a threat to early life stages such as seeds and seedlings. 1996. The phytochemical analysis (qualitative et quantitative) was conducted by standard analytical chemistry method. Leaves - Simple, opposite, broadly elliptic with a smooth margin. The flowers can also be used as a cough mixture. While most of the species in the combretum family are small to medium sized trees or shrubs, the Leadwood is one of the largest trees in Africa, capable of attaining a height of 20 meters. (2012). Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. 1978. Specimen: K000450440 Family: Combretaceae: Type Status: Current Name: Combretum imberbe Wawra: Phenology: Collector: Crawford, F. Plant Parts: Leaves, Stem(s) Combretum imberbe Wawra Selected images: Click on each image to see a larger version and details of the record View all images ... young stems with spine-like opposite branchlets. Combretum imberbe is a characteristic and often impressive bushwillow species of the southern Afrotropics. The leaves are slightly lighter below and are found on short lateral branches. The magnificent leadwood is a medium to large, semi-deciduous tree, which grows up to 20 m in height. Medium to large deciduous tree. The bark is rough and cracks vertically into a netted pattern (reticulate). The Leadwood tree, Combretum Imberbe, is part of the plant family Combretaceae, which has at least 250 species. The presence of leadwood in some areas can indicate to farmers that the grazing is good. petersii (Klotzsch) Engl. It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. Crude protein (CP) content of fresh leaves was highest in Lonchocarpus capassa with 23.9% and lowest in Combretum imberbe with 6.08%. Akad. A useful plant for a medium-large bird garden. The Combretum imberbe is a very tall, high-branching, majestic tree that grows very slowly. 540. Briza Publications, Pretoria . BioCentre Klein Flottbek, Hamburg, Germany, http://apps.kew.org/efloras/fz/intro.html, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Click here to register. Edible gum is obtained from the tree and used for confectionary. Combretum imberbe (Combretaceae). Combretum means climbing plant in Latin according to Pliny, and the common name leadwood refers to the heaviness of the wood. Common Trees In Botswana As a guide it is important to have a good knowledge of the plants in your area of operation as well as their taxonomic classification from family to species. Petioles sometimes persisting after leaf-fall, forming thorns. Flora Zambesiaca 4. Cases where the taxon is native, naturalised, possibly planted or definitely planted are all listed. While most of the species in the combretum family are small to medium sized trees or shrubs, the Leadwood is one of the largest trees in Africa, capable of attaining a height of 20 meters. Young leaves are soft and hairy, rounded with broadly tapering tips and bases. For treatment of diarrhoea and stomach pains, root decoctions are used. Combretum imberbe Wawra var. Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. Struik, Cape Town. Several plant parts are used in traditional med… & Diels, Combretum primigenum Engl. It is a long-lived tree (up to 1000 years) and even after it dies, the Leadwood stays impressive with its pale trunk and soaring branches. Young leaves white or light green. Combretum imberbe. Sappi tree spotting. Its bark cracks in rectangular flakes and the young branches and twigs have hard spines. The simple and usually … The leaves are believed to have magical powers. Combretum imberbe Wawra, Combretum nelsonii Duemmer, Combretum albopunctatum Suesseng, and Terminalia sericea Burch ex DC. & Diels LC; Combretum patelliforme Engl. The small, white, puffball flowers, borne from September to March, are very fragrant and … LC; Combretum nelsonii Dummer LC; Combretum padoides Engl. Useful Tropical Plants Database 2014 by The aqueous and organic crude extracts of the two plants were tested on Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Serratia marcescens, Helicobacter pylori Leadwood Tree or Ivory Tree, Combretum imberbe, is a tropical, slow-growing, deciduous tree of about 21 m tall. Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. Eloff et al. Parts of this tree are used by various tribes in a number of ways: smoke that comes from the burning leaves has been used to relieve coughs, colds and chest complaints. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. Description: Patrick MtsweniWalter Sisulu National Botanical GardenApril 2006, SA Distribution: Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North West, Flowering season: Early Summer, Late Summer. Young leaves are soft and hairy, rounded with broadly tapering tips and bases. species. All 3 may be occur on the same tree. Thomas, V. & Grant, R. 1998. The small, white, puffball flowers, borne from September to March, are very fragrant and attract a myriad of insects and birds. See the articles Wood Allergies and Toxicity and Wood Dust Safety for more information. Briza Publications, Pretoria. Combretaceae in South Africa . Preliminary experiments indicated that the leaves of this plant contain antibacterial compounds that do not occur in other . (Bushwlillow family). In this family, there are about 16 genera, which contain about 530 species. The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activities of stem and leaves from Terminalia sericea and the live and dead bark from Combretum imberbe. The pale green flowers are borne on anxillary spikes. Combretum imberbe is the tallest of all the South African combretums. 3 mm., densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so; upper receptacle little developed, almost flat when the flowers are mature, densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so. The results of this laboratory animal study indicate that MAG possesses analgesic and antiinflammatory effects in the mammalian models used. Some leaves turn red or yellow at any time of the year (photos 740 & 758). Combretum adenogonium is beniniens pharmacopoeia medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. The leaves are eaten by kudu, impala, red lechwe, grey duiker, elephant, giraffe and the last two eat the branches as well. Leaves opposite, verticillate or more rarely alternate, usually petiolate, almost always entire, often conspicuously lepidote. Comments have to be approved before they are shown here. Not registered yet? Janka Hardness: 3,570 lb f (15,880 N) Modulus of Rupture: 20,960 lb f /in 2 (144.5 MPa)* Growing Combretum imberbe. The trunk was used to build an enclosure (kraal ) and grain stamping mortars and these days it is used for furniture and sculptures. Leadwood (e), Hardekool (a), imPondondlovu (z), Mohwwelere-tshipi (ns),mmMondzo (tso), Motswiri (setsw), umMondo (Sw), muheri (v). Combretum imberbe is widespread in northern Namibia. Combretum imberbe (leadwood, Afrikaans: hardekool, Sotho: mohwelere-tÅ¡hipi, Tsonga: motswiri/mondzo, Zulu: impondondlovu) is a characteristic and often impressive bushwillow species of the southern Afrotropics.The medium to large tree [1] has a sparse, semi-deciduous canopy of grey-green leaves. Leaves from Combretum imberbe traditionally used to treat symptoms of malaria in most parts of Southern Africa were studied for interaction of its crude methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts with hemin a product of hemoglobin degradation in 40% water-dimethylsulphoxide at pH 9, 7.4 and 5 using a spectrophotometric method. Keith Coates Palgrave Trees of southern Africa, edn 3. The author suggested that MAG possesses both centrally- and peripherally-mediated The flowers are yellowish-green in loose spikes and with four wings. Local plant use and traditional conservation practices in Nhema communal area, Zimbabwe. Seeds that have not been parasitized should be removed carefully from the fruit, so that the seeds are not damaged, it is therefore preferable to select healthy looking fruits, soak them for a few hours and then plant in seedling trays filled with river sand. The snakeskin-like bark is one of the main features that make identification easier throughout the season. Description. Leaves and bark of Combretum roxburghii was collected from medicinal germplasm garden of Regional Plant Research Centre, Bhubaneswar in the months of February, May, July and October. The simple, oblong leaves are arranged oppositely and silvery grey in colour with red scales. Tree Size: 32-64 ft (10-20 m) tall, 1-2 ft (.3-.6 m) trunk diameter. Making the most of indigenous trees. The silvery-green leaves are unusually small for a Combretum. Edible 4-winged Fruit is a samara that turns red for a time and has 1 wrinkled Seed. It has a spreading canopy and is extremely slow growing. This work aims to study the phytochemical and assess some biological activities of C. adenogonium leaves extracts. The wood is extremely hard and heavy and takes a long time to decay, making this a wonderful lookout tree for all kinds of wildlife. Leaves Leaves opposite, verticillate or rarely alternate, usually petiolate (rarely subsessile), almost always entire; petiole sometimes persisting (especially in climbers) forming a ± hooked spine. The database and code is licensed under a Combretum molle leaves, have been investigated in mice and rats [81]. Combretum imberbe is a deciduous shrub or tree with a spreading crown, most commonly 6 - 10 metres tall, though it can also often be found up to 20 metres tall, with reports of some trees reaching 30 metres. Leaves elliptic to obovate, often on short, spine-like lateral shoots, grey-green above, hairless, but covered in whitish scales beneath. Jacana, Johannesburg.